Faudzil @ Ajak

Faudzil @ Ajak
Always think how to do things differently. - Faudzil Harun@Ajak

19 September 2014

FOOT PAIN - Causes of Foot Pain

Foot pain is a common complaint, and it can have many causes. Read on to learn more about different types of foot pain, diagnosis, and treatments.

Causes of Foot Pain

Pain in the foot can be due to a problem in any part of the foot. Bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles, fascia, toenail beds, nerves, blood vessels, or skin can be the source of foot pain. 
The cause of foot pain can be narrowed down by location and by considering some of the most common causes of foot pain.

Heel Pain

Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. The plantar fascia, a band of tough tissue connecting the heel bone to the toes, becomes irritated or inflamed. Heel pain, worst in the morning when getting out of bed, is the most common symptom. Arch pain may also be present. 
Treatment for plantar fasciitis includes:
  • Rest
  • Calf and foot muscle stretches
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers
  • Shoes with good arch support and a cushioned sole 
Various other treatments for plantar fasciitis are available. 
Heel spurs are abnormal growths of bone on the bottom of the heel bone that may be caused by an abnormal gait, posture or walking, inappropriate shoes, or certain activities. Spurs may cause foot pain while walking or standing. Although one in 10 people has heel spurs, only one in 20 of these people will have foot pain. Heel spurs can occur in people with plantar fasciitis, but they do not cause plantar fasciitis. People with flat feet or high arches are more likely to have foot pain from heel spurs.
Treatment for heel spurs include: 
  • Cutout heel pad
  • Custom-made insert (orthotic) worn in the shoe
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers
  • Rest
  • Surgery (rarely)
  • Physical therapy
stone bruise is a bruise of the fat pad of the heel. It can occur after stepping on a rock or other hard object. 
fracture of the heel bone (calcaneus) is the most commonly fractured foot bone. It is most often caused by high impact to the heel -- for example, when  person has fallen from a height or been in a car accident. Injuries can range from a bone crack from a new vigorous exercise plan to a shattered bone from a high fall.  Heel pain, bruising, swelling, limping, or difficulty walking are the main symptoms. 
Calcaneus fracture treatment includes: 
  • Rest from weight bearing, often with crutches
  • Thorough padding of the heel
  • Splinting or casting to protect the heel bone
  • Pain relievers
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy

Ball of Foot Pain

Metatarsalgia is pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot. Strenuous activity or ill-fitting shoes are the usual causes. Treatment for metatarsalgia includes: 
  • Pain relievers
  • Change to more comfortable footwear
  • Inserts for the shoes to relieve pressure on the ball of the foot is thickening of the tissue around the nerve between the bases of the toes (usually between the third and fourth toes). Foot pain, odd sensations, or numbness over the ball of the foot are the usual symptoms.  It is more common in women and can be a result of wearing high heels or tight shoes. 
    Morton's neuroma treatment includes: 
    • Shoe inserts to reduce pressure on the nerve.
    • Steroid or other injection into the area of foot pain
    • Pain relievers
    • Surgery (occasionally) 
    Sesamoiditis occurs when tendons around the big toe are injured and inflamed. Treatment for sesamoiditis includes: 
    • Rest
    • Ice
    • Wearing a foot pad under the toe in a comfortable shoe
    • Wearing low-heeled shoes
    • Steroid injections

    Arch Pain

    Arch pain is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, which can affect the heel, arch, or both. Plantar fasciitis treatment is the same, regardless of the location of foot pain (see above). For persistent plantar fasciitis, an injection with a mixture of a steroid and local anesthetic can be helpful. 
    Fallen arches -- or flat feet -- occurs when the arches of the feet flatten out (often when standing or walking), causing foot pain and other problems. Flat feet can be treated with shoe inserts (orthotics), shoe adjustments, rest/ice, using a walking case or brace, or physical therapy. Occasionally, surgery is necessary.

    Toe Pain

    Arthritis, including gout, can cause pain in the toes.  Gout is an inflammatory condition in which crystals periodically deposit in joints, causing severe pain and swelling. The big toe is often affected by gout.

    Treatment for gout includes: 
    • Rest
    • Medication such as colchicine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medications, or prednisone
    • Pain relievers
    • Daily medication and diet restriction to prevent gout attacks 
    bunion (hallux valgus) is a bony prominence along the edge of the foot, next to the base of the big toe. Bunions may occur in anyone, but are often caused by ill-fitting footwear in women. Hammer toes often occur with bunions. 
    Bunion treatment includes:
    • Changing to more comfortable shoes; if this is unsuccessful in relieving foot pain, orthotics may be tried. If those are unsuccessful, surgery might be considered.
    Hammer toe occurs when the near joint in the toe is bent, creating a hammer-like appearance. Wearing tight shoes is the main cause of hammer toe. 
    Claw toe occurs when the joint at the end of a toe may become unable to straighten, causing the toe to point down or up. Irritation of the feet and other feet problems may develop, without special footwear to accommodate the claw toe. 
    Treatment of hammer toe and claw toe includes: 
    • Changing to better-fitting footwear; avoiding high heels and tight shoes
    • Stretching exercises for toes and toe joints
    • Shoe inserts
    • Orthotics
    • Surgery may sometimes be necessary occur when skin on one or both sides of a toenail grow over the nail. Ingrown toenails may be painful or lead to infections.  
      Treatment for ingrown toenail includes: 
      • Soak the foot in warm water four times a day.
      • Once daily, wedge a piece of gauze between the nail and wet skin. 
      Turf toe refers to pain at the base of the big toe resulting from athletic activities. Turf toe is an overuse injury usually caused by strain from running or jumping. Turf toe may also be a form of sesamoiditis or sesamoid fracture. 
      Toe fracture may occur in any of the bones of the toes. Minor fractures may only require rest, ice, and pain relievers; serious fractures can require foot immobilization and surgery. Any suspected fracture should be evaluated by a doctor. 
      Toe sprain may occur when jamming or stubbing of the toe damages the tendon or soft tissues of the toe. If no fracture is present, the pain and swelling of a toe sprain should subside within days. 
      Hallux rigidus (toe arthritis) is a degenerative arthritis (osteoarthritis) at the base of the big toe. Pain and stiffness of the joint, worsening over time, are symptoms. Treatment can include pain relievers and stretching exercises. Surgery may be needed in some cases. 
      Corns are thick buildups of tough skin on a point of irritation or pressure on the foot or toe. Corns often have a horn-like appearance. 
      Callus is a wider area of tough skin buildup on the toes or feet, in response to irritation or pressure. Calluses and corns are generally caused by poor-fitting footwear. 
      Treatment for corns and calluses include: 
      • Wear better-fitting shoes
      • Use a pumice stone or other abrasive to wear down the extra skin 
      Sesamoid fracture is a fracture of small bones (sesamoids) that are embedded in tendons attaching to the big toe. Pain in and around the big toe is the main symptom. 
      Treatment for sesamoid fracture includes: 
      • Rest
      • Ice
      • Elevation
      • Pain relievers
      • Immobilization of the toe and foot 
      Surgery may be needed for serious sesamoid fractures.

      Pain on the Foot's Outer Edge

      The fifth metatarsal bone (along the outer foot edge) is a commonly fractured bone in the foot. Pain, swelling, and bruising along the outer foot edge after an injury are symptoms. 
      Treatment for any foot fracture should include medical attention, X-rays, pain relievers, rest, ice, and elevation. Immobilization and surgery may be necessary for some foot fractures.

      Foot Pain That's Anywhere or Everywhere

      Neuropathy, or nerve damage in the feet, is most often caused by diabetes. Foot pain can be burning, stinging, or feel like electricity. Neuropathy foot pain can occur anywhere in the feet.
      Treatment for neuropathy focuses on the underlying cause, such as diabetes. Medications that act on nerves can also be helpful in reducing foot pain. 
      Trauma can mean anything from a major crush injury, to the repetitive damage caused by wearing poor-fitting shoes. The foot pain from trauma can occur anywhere on the feet. 
      Tendinitis is inflammation and irritation of tendons, the bands attaching muscles to bones. Tendons run along all the surfaces of the foot, and can cause foot pain in many different locations. Treatment for tendinitis includes rest and pain relievers; sometimes steroid injections can help. Rarely is surgery necessary for foot pain caused by tendinitis.
Source: http://www.webmd.com/

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